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The evaluation of European criminal law

The example of the Framework Decision on combating trafficking in human beings
First Edition

The role of evaluation has become increasingly important in the context of EU policies in the field of judicial cooperation in criminal matters. This evolution is the result of an increasing number of legally binding instruments adopted in the framework of the third pillar of the European Union and of their growing impact on national legal systems. Read More

Evaluation represents an essential tool to appreciate the legislative and practical implementation of existing European criminal law and to assess and measure in greater detail the effects and impact of EU legislation. Therefore, it plays a significant role in the establishment and strengthening of mutual trust in the EU area of freedom, security and justice.This book aims at developing a methodology for the assessment of the implementation and impact of European criminal law.

The main purpose of this exercise is to test this methodology on the Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings. The choice of this legal instrument is particularly appropriate since it is aimed at harmonising the Member States’ national laws as regards a most serious and specific offence which is related to modern slavery and exploitation of human beings.The book starts with a general analysis of evaluation. This is followed by a series of country chapters, analysing the transposition and implementation as well as the impact of the Framework Decision on trafficking in human beings in 12 selected Member States of the European Union. These contributions served as the basis for more general conclusions drawn up in the final part of the book.

This book is the result of a team work performed by academics and researchers who are members of ECLAN (European Criminal Law Academic Network).


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Specifications


Publisher
Éditions de l'Université de Bruxelles
Edited by
Anne Weyembergh, Veronica Santamaria,
Introduction by
Anne Weyembergh, Veronica Santamaria,
Contributions by
Matjaž Ambrož, Laura C. Bosch, Martin Böse, Nikolaos Chatzinikolaou, Paul De Hert, Francisco Javier de León, Giulietta Gamberini, Athina Giannakoula, Giovanni Grasso, Maria Kaiafa-Gbandi, Adam Łazowski, Katalin Ligeti, Annalisa Lucifora, Manuel Maroto, Jürgen Millen, Theodor Papakyriakou, Mojca M. Plesničar, Maitena Poelemans, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez, Robert Roth, Veronica Santamaria, John R. Spencer, Gintaras Švedas, Anne Weyembergh,
Collection
European Studies
ISSN
13780352
Language
French
Supporting Website
Oapen.org
Publisher Category
Publishers own classification > Law
BISAC Subject Heading
LAW026000 LAW / Criminal Law
Onix Audience Codes
06 Professional and scholarly
CLIL (Version 2013-2019)
3259 DROIT
Subject Scheme Identifier Code
Thema subject category: Public international law: criminal law

Paperback


Publication Date
19 January 2009
ISBN-13
978-2-8004-1437-9
Extent
Main content page count : 416
Code
1437
Dimensions
110 x 180 x 21 cm
Weight
733 grams
ONIX XML
Version 2.1, Version 3

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Contents


Avertissement
Introduction | Anne WEYEMBERGH et Veronica SANTAMARIA
1. Le contexte dans lequel s'inscrit l'ouvrage
    A. Un modèle standard d’évaluation académique
    B. Le test pilote
2. L’instrument qui a fait l’objet du test pilote : la décision-cadre 2002/629/JAI du 19 juillet
    2002 sur la lutte contre la traite des êtres humains
Politiques pénales et évaluation : des défis renouvelés | Robert ROTH
1. La tradition pénale
2. L’évaluation propre et l’évaluation multilatérale
3. Objet et contenu
4. Perspectives critiques
Combating trafficking in human beings in Belgium Conformity
of the transposition of the Council Framework Decision?

| Paul DE HERT and Jürgen MILLEN
1. Introduction
2. The international legal framework
3. The Belgian implementation of the FD
4. Conformity of the transposition of the Council FD of 19 July 2002 
    A. The incrimination of trafficking in human beings (Articles 1 and 2 FD)
    B. The sanctions for natural and legal persons (Articles 3-5 FD)
    C. (Universal) jurisdiction and prosecution (Article 6 FD)
    D. Protection of and assistance to victims (Article 7 FD)
5. Legal practice
6. Conclusion
La transposition en France de la décision-cadre 2002/629/JAI du 19 juillet
2002 sur la traite des êtres humains
| Maiténa POELEMANS
1. Introduction
2. La conformité formelle et substantielle de la transposition en droit
    français de l’incrimination de traite des êtres humains
    A. La conformité formelle des dispositions du Code pénal
         français quant aux actes matériels et aux moyens utilisés
    B. Contrôle de conformité substantielle
3. Contrôle d’effectivité et examen de la mise en pratique du texte
4. Contrôle de l’efficacité et de l’efficience du texte
5. La réception et la perception en France de la norme spécifique
    incriminant la traite des êtres humains
6. Conclusion
Trafficking in human beings in Germany | Martin BÖSE
1. Introduction
2. International and national legal framework
3. Conformity of the internal transpositing measures to the Framework Decision
    A. Formal conformity
    B. Substantive conformity
4. Legal practice
5. Effectiveness and proportionality
6. Reception and perception
7. Conclusion
The FD on combating trafficking in human beings. Evaluating
its fundamental attributes as well as its transposition in
Greek criminal law
| Maria KAIAFA-GBANDI, Nikolaos CHATZINIKOLAOU,
Athina GIANNAKOULA, Théodor PAPAKYRIAKOU
1. Introduction
    Α. Basic features of Greek substantive criminal law
    Β. Other international and European instruments related to trafficking in human beings
2. The transposition of the FD on combating trafficking in human
    beings in Greek criminal law – appraisal of formal and substantive conformity
    A. General remarks
    B. Formal conformity
    C. Substantive conformity
3. Practical application of the norm
    A. Greek case-law and practical use of the text
    B. Specific difficulties encountered regarding the practical use of the text
4. Appraisal of effectiveness and efficiency
    A. Appraisal of effectiveness
    B. Appraisal of efficiency
5. Reception and perception
    A. Reception and perception by practitioners
    B. Reception and perception by politicians
    C. Reception and perception by the media
    D. Reception and perception by social groups
    E. Reception and perception in legal literature
6. Conclusion
    A. The impact of the FD in terms of building up cooperation
         between the authorities of Member States
    B. The impact of the FD on the double criminality requirement
    C. The impact of the FD in terms of building mutual trust
    D. The impact of the FD and of Statute No. 3064/2002 as to the general objectives of AFSJ
    E. The impact of the FD and of Statute No. 3064/2002 on the protection of human rights
    F. The impact of the FD and of Statute No. 3064/2002 on the Greek criminal law
        system and its fundamental principles
Trafficking in human beings in Hungary | Katalin LIGETI
1. Criminological background
2. Hungary’s international and European obligations in regard
    to the criminalisation of trafficking in human beings
3. Some general remarks on Hungarian criminal law
    A. The classification of offences and the age of majority in Hungarian criminal law
    B. Typology of criminal sanctions in Hungarian criminal law
4. The general framework of criminalisation in Hungary
    A. Trafficking in and smuggling of human beings
    B. Pandering
    C. Prostitution
5. The offence of trafficking in human beings in Hungarian criminal law
6. The conformity of Hungarian law with the FD
    A. The victim’s consent
    B. Specially vulnerable victims and child victims
    C. Instigation of, aiding, abetting or attempt to commit trafficking in human beings
    D. Penalties against natural persons
    E. Penalties against legal persons (Articles 4 and 5 FD)
7. Jurisdiction and prosecution (Article 6 FD)
8. Protection of and assistance to victims (Article 7 FD)
9. Shortcomings of Hungarian law in regard to the criminalisation of trafficking in human beings
10. Practical application
11. Reception of the FD in Hungary and concluding remarks
Evaluation of the impact in Italy of the 19th July 2002 Framework
Decision against trafficking in human beings

| Giovanni GRASSO and Annalisa LUCIFORA
1. Introduction
2. Internal legal context
3. Control of formal and substantive conformity
4. Practical application of the norm
5. Control of effectiveness and efficiency
6. Reception and perception
7. Conclusion
Evaluation of the impact of the Framework Decision of 19 July 2002
on combating trafficking in human beings: Lithuania
| Gintaras ŠVEDAS
1. Introduction
2. Lithuania’s international and European obligations
3. General considerations on Lithuanian criminal law
    A. Classification of criminal offences
    B. Typology of criminal sanctions
    C. Age of majority
    D. General framework of criminalisation in Lithuania:
trafficking and smuggling in human beings, prostitution
4. Control of formal and substantive conformity
    A. Incriminations
    B. Penalties against natural persons
    C. Liability of and sanctions against legal persons
    D. Jurisdiction, investigation and prosecution
    E. Protection of and assistance to victims
    F. General assessment
5. Practical application of the norm
6. Control of effectiveness and efficiency
7. Reception and perception
    A. Practitioners
    B. Politicians
    C. Media and written press
    D. Civil society
    E. Legal litterature
8. Conclusions
Trafficking in human beings in the Netherlands | Laura BOSCH
1. Introduction
    A. International legislation
    B. Dutch penal law
2. Control of formal and substantive conformity of the transposition of the 2002 FD in national law
    A. Conformity
    B. Formal conformity
    C. Substantive conformity
3. Practical use of the norm
4. Control of effectiveness and efficiency of the text
5. Reception and perception
6. Conclusion
Poland: implementation without transposition | Adam ŁAZOWSKI
1. Introduction
2. Setting the stage – an overview of international treaties on combating trafficking
    in human beings to which Poland is a party
3. Implementation with(out) transposition – compliance of Polish law with EU legislation
    A. An overview
    B. Control of formal conformity
4. The legislation in practice
    A. General overview of case-law
    B. Case-studies
    C. Activities aimed at combating the trafficking in human beings
5. Conclusions
Slovenia | Matjaž AMBROZ and Mojca M. PLESNICAR
1.Introduction
2. A rough outline of the Slovenian substantive penal law
    A. General considerations
    B. Penal provisions related to trafficking in human beings
3. Substantive and formal conformity
    A. General considerations
    B. Formal conformity
    C. Substantive conformity
4. Practical application of the norm and control of effectiveness and efficiency
5. Reception and perception
6. Conclusion
Spanish legislation on combating trafficking in human beings
| Francisco Javier DE LEÓN, Manuel MAROTO, Miguel ÁNGEL RODRÍGUEZ
1. Introduction
2. Control of formal and substantive conformity
    A. Definition of crime
    B. Penalties provided
    C. Criminal liability of legal persons
    D. Jurisdiction and prosecution
3. Assistance to victims
4. Control of application of the norm
5. Control of effectiveness and efficiency
6. Reception and perception
    A. Reception by practitioners and public authorities
    B. Political reception
    C. Reception by civil society
    D. Reception by legal scholars
7. Conclusion
Le Royaume-Uni | John SPENCER et Giulietta GAMBERINI
1. Introduction
    A. Le droit pénal matériel interne
    B. La mise en œuvre d’instruments internationaux
2. Conformité formelle et substantielle
    A. Exigences répressives
    B. Protection des victimes
3. Mise en œuvre pratique
    A. Enquêtes et poursuites
    B. Jugement
4. Efficacité et efficience
5. Perception
    A. Praticiens
    B. Politiques
    C. Société civile
    D. Presse écrite
    E. Doctrine
5. Conclusions
Conclusions | Anne WEYEMBERGH et Veronica SANTAMARIA
1. Introduction
2. Ratification/transposition des principaux autres instruments relatifs à la traite et
    distinction entre « traite » et « trafic » d’êtres humains
    A. Ratification
    B. Différence entre la « traite » et le « trafic » des êtres humains
3. Le texte légal transposant la décision-cadre
4. Le contrôle de conformité
    A. Le contrôle de conformité formelle
    B. Le contrôle de conformité substantielle
5. Effectivité et mise en œuvre pratique
6. Efficacité et efficience (proportionnalité, subsidiarité et adéquation)
    A. En ce qui concerne l’efficacité
    B. En ce qui concerne l’efficience
7. Réception et perception
8. Remarques finales
    A. Contribution de la DC aux objectifs du rapprochement des législations pénales, et
         plus généralement à l’espace de liberté, de sécurité et de justice
    B. Contribution de l’étude à l’exercice d’évaluation
Liste des acronymes, abréviations et sigles
Liste des auteurs

Excerpt


Introduction